Tuesday, December 13, 2011
Will Islam Preclude Democracy From Gaining Ground in the Middle East? (An Indonesian Perspective)
The last year has been one of ongoing political tumult throughout the Middle East, and it is not easy to predict when and how the uproar will end. The transition from decades of authoritarian rule to a new era of democratic governance is no simple endeavor; the regimes of the Middle East have long suppressed any openings for democratic leadership and institution. The upheaval raises several pressing questions: Is democracy fundamentally at odds with the doctrines of the Islamic world in the Middle East? And if so, why is it any different here in Indonesia?
The debate over the relationship between Islam and democracy rests not only on Islamic doctrine but also on history. Essentially, democracy is a system of governance where sovereignty lies in the hands of the people. But many will say this contradicts with the doctrine of Islam, since in the Islamic view, sovereignty lies in the hand of God. Advocates of this line of thinking put forward three arguments.
First, there is the fundamentally different view of the nation, or ummah. The view of the nation in modern democracy is tied to a physical space marked by territorial and geographical borders. On the other hand, Islam has its own understanding of a nation that is not bounded by borders, but by aqidah (the basic tenets of Islam). Therefore, for many Muslims, nation is defined by faith, not by geography.
Second, some Muslim scholars see democracy as a worldly value, when spiritual goals are of primary importance. Democracy thus becomes a secondary goal.
Third, a contradiction arises because the people’s sovereignty that lies at the heart of democracy is absolute, meaning the people are the ultimate holders of power. Laws and regulations are decided by the people through their representatives and not by God. But for some scholars, the people’s sovereignty is not absolute at all, since it is bound by the laws of Islam. In Islam, only God’s sovereignty is absolute.
These three interpretations are used by some Muslims to argue that there is no space for democracy in their lives. However, there are many Muslims who take the opposite view, arguing that democracy is inherent in people and in line with Islamic teachings. They base their argumentation on Islamic doctrines — justice, freedom, deliberation and equality — that espouse the basic principles of democracy.
At this level, Islam does not speak about a procedural system but more about the basic soul and spirit of democracy. If the interpretation of democracy is the existence of certain social and political ideals, like the freedom of thought, faith, opinion and equality before the law, there would seem no contradiction, as these are guaranteed by Islam.
There are several cultural factors that have slowed the growth of democracy in the Islamic countries of the Middle East.
First, there is a strong monolithic paradigm of thought over Islam. Such a paradigm stems from Middle Eastern Muslims’ limited understanding of Islam’s nature and essence, both in regards to Koran and Hadith and in regards to history.
Islam is often viewed as a divine instrument to understand the world, and such a perception has prompted some Muslims to believe that Islam offers a complete way of life ( kaffah ). In this understanding, Islam is an all-encompassing system of belief that offers a solution to all of life’s problems.
This view of Islam as perfect and comprehensive has a number of implications. If Islam is transformed for use at the level of political ideology and political practice, this could lead to the political belief that Islam must become the state’s basis of existence, Islamic jurisprudence must be accepted as the state’s constitution and sovereignty would lie in the hands of God.
In short, in the context of such a perspective the modern political system of rule by the people is in direct conflict with Islam.
Second, the absence of democracy in the Middle East could also be explained by the weak political will of the regimes to accommodate democracy. Leadership has long been based on family ties and regimes would lose this prerogative.
Third, the most ironic thing about the absence of democracy in the Middle East is the often tacit support of the Western world — the United States in particular — for the existence of the authoritarian regimes.
The United States has seemed to care less about whether Middle Eastern autocracies developed any democratic character than about how they were able to secure America’s various economic imperialistic interests. This has nothing to do with the nature of Islam, but it is obvious that the West, particularly the United States, is not always fully in step with its own exhortations to promote democracy globally.
Of special note, however, is the fact that the absence of democracy in countries of the Middle East is not a feature of the wider Muslim world.
Indonesia, for example, has seen much success in the transition from an authoritarian regime to a democratic system of governance. While Indonesia still has a long way to go before democracy fully takes root, at the very least it has been quite successful in tearing down the walls of tyrannical power.
The general elections in 1999, 2004 and 2009 were testament to the wave of democratization here, and the direct elections of a president and a vice president through indicated a new phase history of Indonesian politics.
However, the most substantial and revolutionary change has occurred at the level of civil society. Muslims in Indonesia, slowly but surely, have grown and developed to become a rational, autonomous and progressive community. They have started to be able to think rationally and critically especially when they are facing the political and religious elite, which tends to be intrusive, manipulative and exploitative.
The basis of Indonesian Muslims’ political preference is more in the courage of their thinking in line with their rational reasoning. The courage to think rationally has contributed to the creation of a free public sphere, and this has been instrumental for Muslims in Indonesia to create the culture of open and fair political participation.
Indonesia would thus seem to prove that Islamic doctrine itself is not in contradiction with democracy. Instead, Muslims’ interpretation of Islamic doctrine and cultural heritage forms their views on the value of democracy and its relationship to Islam.
As the most Muslim-populous country in the world, Indonesia can play a significant role in efforts to promote democratization in the Islamic World.
The nation is a real-world example of the compatibility of Islam and democracy, one that could serve as a model for countries in the wider Islamic world.
By Bawono Kumoro researcher in the field of politics at the Habibie Center and a fellow at the Paramadina University Graduate School of Communication.